北歐的文藝復興與矯飾主義的風格

重建後的莎士比亞環球劇場
收集自 Shakespeare and the Globe


莎士比亞環球劇場重建經過

On 19th September 1999, Shakespeare's Globe Theatre complex on the south bank of the Thames in London, will fully open; 500 years to the day since the first recorded performance of a play at the original theatre.

The original Globe Theatre saw the first performances of Hamlet, Othello, Macbeth and King Lear. Shakespeare created his plays specifically with this unique venue in mind. The theatre originally was built in 1599, on a site in Shoreditch, north London. The owner of the land increased the rent astronomically, to a level which the Globe's company could no longer afford. But, the company did own the wood from which the theatre was built. In the winter after the rent increase, they dismantled the building piece by piece, shipped it across the Thames to Southwark on the south bank, and reassembled it there.

Shakepeare's colleagues were ahead of their time. The Globe was one of the earliest prefabricated buildings. This prefabrication method, where the pieces of the building are crafted away from the site and shipped there for assembly, is the technique being used to rebuild the theatre today.

The driving force behind the reconstruction project was the American actor, Sam Wanamaker. Here he is pictured with Mel Gibson, attending the premiere of the movie "Hamlet", a screening in aid of the Globe theatre project fund. Sam came to Britain in 1949, and travelled to London. He expected to see something marking the site of the original Globe Theatre: the cradle of modern English language theatre and playwriting. He couldn't understand that there was nothing to commemorate Britain's greatest playwright. That was when he came up with the idea of rebuilding the Globe.

In the 1950's, Sam had to leave the U.S., because of his implication in the McCarthy anti-communism trials. He came to live in the U.K., and set about making his dream of rebuilding the Globe a reality. Through his contacts in the world of theatre and show-business, Sam got influential people interested in his idea. Things started to happen. Wanamaker founded "The Globe Playhouse Trust" in the early 1970's, which signalled the formal start of the project. Southwark Council initially granted the land to build on to the project at the beginning of the 1980's; but political wrangles resulted in a court battle with the council when they reneged on the deal. Once the trust had resolved the ownership of the land in court, the celebrated British actress, Dame Judi Dench performed the ground-breaking ceremony, and work began in earnest.

Apart from Sam Wanamaker, the other key figure in realising the reconstruction was the architect Theo Crosby. With his practice, Pentagram, he meticulously researched the geometries and designs of the master builders of Shakespeare's time. Traditional building materials and techniques were employed throughout the construction, with compromises to modern building codes and ordnances. For instance, the straw thatch for the roof had to be coated in a special fire-protective liquid.

The Globe is the first thatched-roof building is built to be built in London since the Great Fire in 1666. A mix of plaster and goat hair, which acts as a binding agent, forms outer skin of the theatre. This is exactly as the craftsmen of Elizabethan England would have prepared it. The complex will incorporate a shop, a riverside pub, educational facilities and a piazza which will give audiences one of London's most breathtaking views across the river Thames.

Before Pentagram's design could be completed, Sam and the team ran into some major problems. After the ground was broken, the construction workers cleared the site, dug a gigantic hole 50 foot deep, and proceeded to construct the massive "diaphragm" wall, needed to keep out the river water. Unfortunately, once the wall was complete, the project ran out of money. Alastair Tallon, the development director of the Trust, told us:

"We quickly realised that it wasn't feasible to get all the money we needed to build the theatre, and then start building. So Theo Crosby came up with an idea he called 'direct build': as the money came in for the different parts of the building, we would build that part, phase by phase." "It meant that the construction process was slightly slower than is normal, but the benefit was that we could show our sponsors exactly what they had paid for."

Slowly and surely, construction has progressed. The first performance will be on June 14th, 1996, the late Sam Wanamaker's birthday. The rest of the complex will open in 1999.

Alastair is optimistic about the future of the Globe: "I hope that the Globe Theatre will allow people to "reclaim" Shakespeare. I want people to feel that it as much their theatre, as the traditional Shakespeare audience's. I want schoolkids to be able to come here and think that it's going to be an exciting experience. It's going to be a great experiment."

A case of "All's well that ends well". he struggle to build the Globe has been a herculean effort of vision, goodwill, and generosity on the behalf of people all around the world. You can play a part too. We were surprised to find how little it would cost to support the construction effort, and secure a place in history. There are two main ways in which you can help. Firstly through a donation towards the cost of construction. A donation of £ 2.50 buys a walling lath. A donation of £ 20.00 buys a floor board. A donation of £ 50.00 buys a mortice and tenon joint. A donation of £ 300 buys a York paving stone engraved with your name. It will be laid on the piazza, with your name amongst those of stars who have sponsored a stone, such as Sir Laurence Olivier, Sir Anthony Hopkins, John Cleese, Douglas Fairbanks Jnr, and Joanna Lumley.

Secondly, schools can become part of the "Globelink Project". They can contribute towards the building of the £100,000 "heavens", the traditional name given to the canopy above the stage. Globelink schools are given a time-capsule for every # 200 they raise. These are then buried, containing objects the school has selected for future generations to discover. Amongst objects already buried in the time-capsules are signed programmes of school Shakespearean performances, a piece of the Berlin wall, and pebbles from the Rocky mountains. The Globelink project is truly international. Schools also forge strong educational links with the Theatre. Newsletters and photos keep the children up-to-date with progress, and educational workshops make Shakespeare accessible to all.


重建後的莎士比亞環球劇場


the audience at the Globe

環球劇場裡的觀眾


Shakespeare in the reconstructed Globe is unlike performances of Shakespeare anywhere else. The Globe looks, feels and sounds different. The theatre is a circular, open-air structure where a thousand people sit in the three covered galleries and six or seven hundred people stand in the yard around the stage.This makes it the third largest theatre auditorium in London, yet it comes over primarily as intimate. The stage is roofed. The Frons Scenae (back wall) is ornately decorated with reliefs and carvings while the ceiling is painted as the 'Heavens' - stars, sun, moon and signs of the Zodiac.

The Stage and Frons Scenae

舞台與背景


Rushes on the Globe stage

文藝復興時,舞台上常鋪著稻草以為隔音之用。


The Red Company

從上層觀眾席上,可以看到舞台周圍的觀眾。


The Globe Theatre Heavens

像天堂般的舞台天花板。


Performances take place in daylight. There is little or no scenery: drapes, hangings and furniture adorn the stage and set the scene - a throne for a court scene, a bed for a more intimate one. Music and sound effects (a canon can be fired or bells sounded in the attic) are live and a part of the performance. Sounds are not amplified and no purpose lighting is used.

The relationship between the actor and the audience is unique. It is a really interactive experience - Elizabethan theatres expected much more audience participation than modern playhouses. From the very first experimental seasons, it became clear that the 'groundlings' - those standing in the yard - do respond to this unusual space. The following seasons have confirmed this overwhelming role of the audience.

A scene from Henry V in 1997

劇院經理 Mark Rylance 在 Henry V 劇中。


The Globe's Company, under the artistic directorate of Mark Rylance, includes young directors and actors and more established `names' and thus combines experience and training, practice and experiment. The Globe will be the home for productions of Shakespeare and the works of his contemporaries. The Opening Season (1997) included a play by Middleton and one by Beaumont and Fletcher, the 1998 Season one by Middleton and one by Dekker. It will be the Company's policy to commission plays for the theatre from modern authors. Some productions will attempt to recreate the style of an original Elizabethan performance and this largely for academic and educational purposes. In 1997, the production of Henry Vwas in original clothing, played by an all-male cast, and some performances were done without interval. In 1998, the production of The Merchant of Venice was also in original clothing and the production of As You Like It included a number of authentic features, though it used the yard as an extension of the playing space, which is not supported by historical evidence.

The Globe Theatre Company assembles each year. It consists of two playing companies, each of which operates in repertory. Performances take place from Tuesday to Saturday, and one show on Sunday. Performances begin at 2 pm and 7.30 pm in the week and at 4 pm on Sundays. The playing season is usually twenty weeks during the summer, allowing all performances to take place or begin in daylight. It is normally possible to see a a different play in the afternoon and evening and it is usually possible to see a different combination of plays through the week.


September 18, 1998 編製 感謝中華民國教育部專案補助